How Do I Examine Blepharospasm?

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Video 1. Examination of blepharospasm.

Authors:  Carlo Colosimo, Matteo Bologna and Alfredo Berardell

Article first published online:  28 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mdc3.12291


Blepharospasm, which is the most frequent cranial dystonia, is characterized clinically by bilateral, synchronous, and symmetric involuntary orbicularis oculi muscle contractions. Assessment of motor abnormalities in patients with blepharospasm is an important issue in the clinical practice of movement disorders. This video highlights the most important aspects in the clinical evaluation of blepharospasm. We will show how we approach the main motor abnormalities related to blepharospasm. Additional features that often characterize blepharospasm, such as increased blinking, sensory tricks that can transiently improve muscle spasms, and apraxia of eyelid opening will also be discussed. Then, we will summarize the main aspects that differentiate patients with blepharospasm from other conditions characterized by eyelid disturbances. Finally, we will take into account the possible therapeutic implications of an accurate clinical examination of patients.


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