Rating Scales

About 'Recommended' Scales

According to the current definition (which has slightly evolved over time), a scale is considered "recommended" if it has been applied to PD populations, there are data on its use in studies beyond the group that developed the scale, and it has been studied clinimetrically* and found valid, reliable and sensitive to change.

*The latter requirement refers to clinimetric testing in any population of patients, but scales tested in PD populations with good clinimetric profiles are favored over those successfully tested in other populations, but not PD. Among Recommended scales, this prioritization is discussed in the body of the report and conclusions.

To read all Committee reports, click here.

Permissions for industry or clinical use of the MDS-developed rating scales are available from MDS International Secretariat by clicking on the Scale Permissions Form link below.

Online Tools

MDS-UPDRS
Training Program & Exercise

(Free for MDS members)

UDysRS Training Program
& Exercise

(Free for MDS members)

MDS-Owned Rating Scales

The following scales  and questionnaires are owned and licensed by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (NOTE: the first title links to the full paper or questionnaire, and is followed by a link to the actual scale/score sheet).

For more information about all MDS Rating Scales, please e-mail Jen Wolf, Program Manager.

 

   

        Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) Translations

 


Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS)

To obtain permission to use the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, please contact Liz McCarthy by e-mail at Liz.McCarthy@ctcc.rochester.edu at the Huntington Study Group. You may also order the UHDRS teaching tape through the Huntington Study Group. Visit the UHDRS webpage.

 


MDS-Recommended Rating Scales

The following rating scales have been recommended by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society's Committee on Rating Scales in Movement Disorders.

 

Click on the links below each title to display authors and publication date.

Parkinson's disease

Movement Disorder Society - Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)

Goetz, C. G., Tilley, B. C., Shaftman, S. R., Stebbins, G. T., Fahn, S., Martinez-Martin, P., Poewe, W., Sampaio, C., Stern, M. B., Dodel, R., Dubois, B., Holloway, R., Jankovic, J., Kulisevsky, J., Lang, A. E., Lees, A., Leurgans, S., LeWitt, P. A., Nyenhuis, D., Olanow, C. W., Rascol, O., Schrag, A., Teresi, J. A., van Hilten, J. J. and LaPelle, N. (2008), Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): Scale presentation and clinimetric testing results. Mov. Disord., 23: 2129-2170.

Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)

Fahn S, Elton RL, and members of the UPDRS committee. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Goldstein M, Calne DB, eds. Recent developments in Parkinson's Disease. New Jersey: McMillan Health Care, 1987:153-163.

Hoehn and Yahr Scale

Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality. Neurology 1967;17:427-442.

Apathy

Apathy Scale (AS)

Starkstein SE, Mayberg HS, Preziosi TJ, Andrezejewski P, Leiguarda R, Robinson RG. Reliability, validity, and clinical correlates of apathy in Parkinson's disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1992;4:134-139.

Lille apathy rating scale (LARS):

Sockeel P, Dujardin K, Devos D, Deneve C, Destee A, Defebvre L. The Lille apathy rating scale (LARS),a new instrument for detecting and quantifying apathy: validation in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2006;77:579-584

Autonomic Symptom

SCOPA-AUT

Visser, M., Marinus, J., Stiggelbout, A. M. and Van Hilten, J. J. (2004), Assessment of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: The SCOPA-AUT. Mov. Disord., 19: 1306-1312.

Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale

Suarez GA, Opfer-Gehrking TL, Offord KP, Atkinson EJ, O'Brien PC, Low PA. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms. Neurology 1999; 52: 523-528.

Assessment of Autonomic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: The SCOPA-AUT

Visser M, Marinus J, Stiggelbout AM, Van Hilten JJ. Assessment of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: the SCOPA-AUT. Mov Disord 2004;19:1306-1312.

Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS)

Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P, Schapira AH, et al. International multicenter pilot study of the first comprehensive self-completed nonmotor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson's disease: the NMSQuest study. Mov Disord 2006;21:916-923.

Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQ)

Martinez-Martin P, Schapira AH, Stocchi F, et al. Prevalence of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease in an international setting; study using nonmotor symptoms questionnaire in 545 patients. Mov Disord 2007;22:1623-1629.

Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P, Brown RG, et al. Results from an international pilot study. Mov Disord 2007;22:1901-1911.

Blepharospasm

Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI)

Jankovic J, Kenney C, Grafe S, Goertelmeyer R, Comes G. Relationship between various clinical outcome assessments in patients with blepharospasm. Mov Disord2009;24:407–413.

Depression

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, et al. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-571.

Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD)

Williams, J. R. and Marsh, L. (2009), Validity of the Cornell scale for depression in dementia in Parkinson's disease with and without cognitive impairment. Mov. Disord., 24: 433-437.

Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)

Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clin Gerontol 1986;165-173.

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D)

Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62.

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

Snaith RP, Zigmond AS. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In: Rush AJ, editor. Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. p 547-548.

Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)

Montgomery SA, Asberg M. A new depression scale, designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry 1979;134:382-389.

Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)

Zung WWK. A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965;12:63-70.

Dyskinesia

Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale

Goetz CG, Stebbins GT, Shale HM, et al. Utility of an objective dyskinesia rating scale for Parkinson's disease: inter- and intrarater reliability assessment. Mov Disord 1994;9:390-394.

Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS)

Rush JA Jr., Handbook of Psychiatric Measures, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, 166-168.

Unified Dyskinesia Scale (UDysRS)

Goetz, C. G., Nutt, J. G. and Stebbins, G. T. (2008), The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale: Presentation and clinimetric profile. Mov. Disord., 23: 2398-2403.

26-item Parkinson Disease Dyskinesia Scale (PDYS-26)

Katzenschlager R,Schrag A,Evans A, et al. Quantifying the impact of dyskinesias in PD: the PDYS-26: a patient-based outcome measure. Neurology 2007; 69: 555-563.

Dystonia

Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale (CDIP-58)

Cano SJ, Warner TT, Linacre JM, et al. Capturing the true burden of dystonia on patients: the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). Neurology2004;63:1629–1633.

Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (FMDRS)

Burke RE, Fahn S, Marsden CD, Bressman SB, Moskowitz C,Friedman J. Validity and reliability of a rating scale for the primary torsion dystonias. Neurology 1985; 35:73–77.

Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)

Muller J, Wissel J, Kemmler G, et al. Craniocervical dystonia questionnaire (CDQ-24): development and validation of a disease-specific quality of life instrument. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry2004;75:749–753.

Fatigue

Fatigue Severity Scale

Krupp LB, LaRocca NG, Muir-Nash J, Steinberg AD. The fatigue severity scale. Application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Neurol 1989;46:1121-1123

Parkinson Fatigue Scale

Brown RG, Dittner A, Findley L, Wessely SC. The Parkinson fatigue scale. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2005;11:49-55

Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory

Smets EM, Garssen B, Bonke B, De Haes JC. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) psychometric qualities of an instrument to assess fatigue. J Psychosom Res 1995;39:315-325

WO-19, WO-QQ

Martinez-Martin, P., Tolosa, E., Hernandez, B. and Badia, X. (2008), Validation of the "QUICK" questionnaire-A tool for diagnosis of "wearing-off" in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov. Disord., 23: 830-836.

WO-9

Stacy MA, Murphy JM, Greeley DR, Stewart RM, Murck H, Meng X. The sensitivity and specificity of the 9-item Wearing-off Questionnaire. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008; 14: 205-212.

Hauser Diary

Hauser RA, Friedlander J, Zesiewicz TA, et al. A home diary to assess functional status in patients with Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000; 23: 75-81.

Core assessment program for surgical interventional therapies in Parkinson's disease (CAPSIT-PD)

Defer, G.-L., Widner, H., Marié, R.-M., Rémy, P. and Levivier, M. (1999), Core assessment program for surgical interventional therapies in Parkinson's disease (CAPSIT-PD). Mov. Disord., 14: 572-584.

Psychosis

Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)

Overall JE, Gorham DR, The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychol Rep 1962;10:799-812.

Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)

Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J. The neuropsychiatric inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44: 2308-2314.

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)

Kay SR, Opler LA, Lindermayer JP. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation. Br J Psychiatry 1989;155 (Suppl 7):59-65.

Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS)

Andreasen NC. Scale for the assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS). Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa; 1984.

Quality of Life

European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D)

EuroQol Group. EuroQol-a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy 1990; 16: 199-208.

36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)

Hays, RD (1994). The Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Measures of Patient Adherence. Retrieved April 19, 2004, from the RAND Corporation web site: http://www.rand.org/health/surveys/MOS.adherence.measures.pdf.

39-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39)

Peto V, Jenkinson C, Fitzpatrick R, Greenhall R. The development and validation of a short measure of functioning and well-being for individuals with Parkinson' disease. Qual Life Res 1995; 4: 241-248.

Short Form Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-8)

Jenkinson C, Fitzpatrick R, Peto V, Greenhall R, Hyman N. The PDQ-8: development and validation of a short-form Parkinson's disease questionnaire. Psychol Health 1997; 12: 805-814.

Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL)

de Boer AG, Wijker W, Speelman JD, de Haes JC. Quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease: development of a questionnaire. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996; 61: 70-74.

Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Psychosocial

Marinus J,Visser M,Martinez-Martin P,van Hilten JJ,Stiggelbout AM. A short psychosocial questionnaire for patients with Parkinson's disease: the SCOPA-PS. J Clin Epidemiol 2003; 56: 61-67.

Parkinson's Impact Scale (PIMS)

Calne S, Schulzer M, Mak E, et al. Validating a quality of life Rating Scale for Idiopathic Parkinsonism: Parkinson's Impact Scale (PIMS). Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 1996; 2: 55-61.

Nottingham Health Profile

Hunt SM, McEwen J, McKenna SP. Measuring health status: a new tool for clinicians and epidemiologists. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1985; 35: 185-188.

Sickness Impact Profile (SIP)

Bergner B, Bobbitt R, Carter W, Gilson B. The sickness impact profile: development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care. 1981; 19: 787-805.

Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQUALIF)

Welsh M, McDermott MP, Holloway RG, et al. Devlopment and testing of the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQUALIF). Mov Disord. 2003;18:637-645.

Sleep

Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS)

Chaudhuri KR, Pal S, DiMarco A, et al. The Parkinson's disease sleep scale: a new instrument for assessing sleep and nocturnal disability in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73: 629-635.

Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI)

Buysse,D.J., Reynolds,C.F., Monk,T.H., Berman,S.R., & Kupfer,D.J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): A new instrument for psychiatric research and practice. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213.

SCOPA-sleep scale (SCOPA)

Marinus J, Visser M, van Hilten JJ, Lammers GJ, Stiggelbout AM. Assessment of sleep and sleepiness in Parkinson disease. SLEEP 2003;26:1049-1054.

Torticollis

Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS)

Consky ES, Lang AE. Clinical assessments of patients with cervical dystonia. In: Jankovic J, Hallett M, editors. Therapy with botulinum toxin. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 1994:211–237.

Voice

Voice Handicap Index

Jacobson BH, Johnson A, Grywalski C, et al. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI): development and validation. Am J Speech Lang Pathol1997;6:6670.

Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ)

Webb AL, Carding PN, Deary IJ, MacKenzie K, Steen IN, WilsonJA. Optimising outcome assessment of voice interventions. I: Reliability and validity of three self-reported scales. J Laryngol Otol2007;121:763–767.