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International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
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MDS-Recommended Rating Scales

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  Apathy: Apathy Scale (AS)

Apathy Scale (AS)
Starkstein SE, Mayberg HS, Preziosi TJ, Andrezejewski P, Leiguarda R, Robinson RG. Reliability, validity, and clinical correlates of apathy in Parkinson's disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1992;4:134-139.

  Apathy: Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS)

Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS)
Sockeel P, Dujardin K, Devos D, Deneve C, Destee A, Defebvre L. The Lille apathy rating scale (LARS),a new instrument for detecting and quantifying apathy: validation in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2006;77:579-584

  Autonomic Symptom: Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale

Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale
Suarez GA, Opfer-Gehrking TL, Offord KP, Atkinson EJ, O'Brien PC, Low PA. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms. Neurology 1999; 52: 523-528

  Blepharospasm: Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI)

Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI)
Jankovic J, Kenney C, Grafe S, Goertelmeyer R, Comes G. Relationship between various clinical outcome assessments in patients with blepharospasm. Mov Disord2009;24:407–413

  Depression: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, et al. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-571

  Depression: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD)

Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD)
Williams, J. R. and Marsh, L. (2009), Validity of the Cornell scale for depression in dementia in Parkinson's disease with and without cognitive impairment. Mov. Disord., 24: 433-437

  Depression: Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)

Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)
Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clin Gerontol 1986;165-173

  Depression: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D)

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D)
Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62

  Depression: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Snaith RP, Zigmond AS. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In: Rush AJ, editor. Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. p 547-548

  Depression: Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)

Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)
Montgomery SA, Asberg M. A new depression scale, designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry 1979;134:382-389

  Depression: Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)

Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)
Zung WWK. A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965;12:63-70

  Dyskinesia: Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale

Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale
Goetz CG, Stebbins GT, Shale HM, et al. Utility of an objective dyskinesia rating scale for Parkinson's disease: inter- and intrarater reliability assessment. Mov Disord 1994;9:390-394

  Dyskinesia: Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS)

Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS)
Rush JA Jr., Handbook of Psychiatric Measures, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, 166-168

  Dyskinesia: Unified Dyskinesia Scale (UDysRS)

Unified Dyskinesia Scale (UDysRS)
Goetz, C. G., Nutt, J. G. and Stebbins, G. T. (2008), The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale: Presentation and clinimetric profile. Mov. Disord., 23: 2398-2403

  Dyskinesia: Parkinson's Disease Dyskinesia Scale (PDYS-26)

Parkinson's Disease Dyskinesia Scale (PDYS-26)
Katzenschlager R,Schrag A,Evans A, et al. Quantifying the impact of dyskinesias in PD: the PDYS-26: a patient-based outcome measure. Neurology 2007; 69: 555-563

  Dystonia: Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale (CDIP-58)

Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale (CDIP-58)
Cano SJ, Warner TT, Linacre JM, et al. Capturing the true burden of dystonia on patients: the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). Neurology2004;63:1629–1633.

  Dystonia: Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)

Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)
Muller J, Wissel J, Kemmler G, et al. Craniocervical dystonia questionnaire (CDQ-24): development and validation of a disease-specific quality of life instrument. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry2004;75:749–753

  Dystonia: Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (FMDRS)

Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (FMDRS)
Burke RE, Fahn S, Marsden CD, Bressman SB, Moskowitz C,Friedman J. Validity and reliability of a rating scale for the primary torsion dystonias. Neurology 1985; 35:73–77

  Dystonia: Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS)

Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS)
Consky ES, Lang AE. Clinical assessments of patients with cervical dystonia. In: Jankovic J, Hallett M, editors. Therapy with botulinum toxin. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 1994:211–237

  Fatigue: Fatigue Severity Scale

Fatigue Severity Scale
Krupp LB, LaRocca NG, Muir-Nash J, Steinberg AD. The fatigue severity scale. Application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Neurol 1989;46:1121-1123

  Fatigue: Parkinson Fatigue Scale

Parkinson Fatigue Scale
Brown RG, Dittner A, Findley L, Wessely SC. The Parkinson fatigue scale. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2005;11:49-55

  Fatigue: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory

Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory
Smets EM, Garssen B, Bonke B, De Haes JC. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) psychometric qualities of an instrument to assess fatigue. J Psychosom Res 1995;39:315-325

  Parkinson's disease: Core assessment program for surgical interventional therapies in Parkinson's disease (CAPSIT-PD)

Core Assessment Program for Surgical Interventional Therapies in Parkinson's Disease (CAPSIT-PD)
Defer, G.-L., Widner, H., Marié, R.-M., Rémy, P. and Levivier, M. (1999), Core assessment program for surgical interventional therapies in Parkinson's disease (CAPSIT-PD). Mov. Disord., 14: 572-584

  Parkinson's disease: Hauser Diary

Hauser Diary
Hauser RA, Friedlander J, Zesiewicz TA, et al. A home diary to assess functional status in patients with Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000; 23: 75-81

  Parkinson's disease: Hoehn and Yahr Scale

Hoehn and Yahr Scale
Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality. Neurology 1967;17:427-442.

  Parkinson's disease: Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQ)

Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQ)
Martinez-Martin P, Schapira AH, Stocchi F, et al. Prevalence of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease in an international setting; study using nonmotor symptoms questionnaire in 545 patients. Mov Disord 2007;22:1623-1629

Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P, Brown RG, et al. Results from an international pilot study. Mov Disord 2007;22:1901-1911

  Parkinson's disease: Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS)

Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS)
Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P, Schapira AH, et al. International multicenter pilot study of the first comprehensive self-completed nonmotor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson's disease: the NMSQuest study. Mov Disord 2006;21:916-923

  Parkinson's disease: Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease

Visser, M., Marinus, J., Stiggelbout, A. M. and Van Hilten, J. J. (2004), Assessment of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: The SCOPA-AUT. Mov. Disord., 19: 1306-1312.

  Parkinson's disease: Movement Disorder Society - Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)

Movement Disorder Society - Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)
Goetz, C. G., Tilley, B. C., Shaftman, S. R., Stebbins, G. T., Fahn, S., Martinez-Martin, P., Poewe, W., Sampaio, C., Stern, M. B., Dodel, R., Dubois, B., Holloway, R., Jankovic, J., Kulisevsky, J., Lang, A. E., Lees, A., Leurgans, S., LeWitt, P. A., Nyenhuis, D., Olanow, C. W., Rascol, O., Schrag, A., Teresi, J. A., van Hilten, J. J. and LaPelle, N. (2008), Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): Scale presentation and clinimetric testing results. Mov. Disord., 23: 2129-2170.

  Parkinson's disease: Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)

Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)
Fahn S, Elton RL, and members of the UPDRS committee. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Goldstein M, Calne DB, eds. Recent developments in Parkinson's Disease. New Jersey: McMillan Health Care, 1987:153-163.

  Parkinson's disease: Wearing Off Questionnaire-9

Stacy MA, Murphy JM, Greeley DR, Stewart RM, Murck H, Meng X. The sensitivity and specificity of the 9-item Wearing-off Questionnaire. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008; 14: 205-212.

  Parkinson's disease: Wearing Off-19, Wearing Off-Quick Questionnaire

Wearing Off-19, Wearing Off-Quick Questionnaire
Martinez-Martin, P., Tolosa, E., Hernandez, B. and Badia, X. (2008), Validation of the "QUICK" questionnaire - A tool for diagnosis of "wearing-off" in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov. Disord., 23: 830-836

  Psychosis: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)

Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)
Overall JE, Gorham DR, The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychol Rep 1962;10:799-812

  Psychosis: Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)

Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)
Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J. The neuropsychiatric inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44: 2308-2314

  Psychosis: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)
Kay SR, Opler LA, Lindermayer JP. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation. Br J Psychiatry 1989;155 (Suppl 7):59-65

  Psychosis: Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS)

Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS)
Andreasen NC. Scale for the assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS). Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa; 1984

  Quality of Life: European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D)

European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D)
EuroQol Group. EuroQol-a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy 1990; 16: 199-208

  Quality of Life: Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)

Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)
Hays, RD (1994). The Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Measures of Patient Adherence. Retrieved April 19, 2004, from the RAND Corporation website

  Quality of Life: Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39)

Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39)
Peto V, Jenkinson C, Fitzpatrick R, Greenhall R. The development and validation of a short measure of functioning and well-being for individuals with Parkinson' disease. Qual Life Res 1995; 4: 241-248

  Quality of Life: Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) Short Form

Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) Short Form
Jenkinson C, Fitzpatrick R, Peto V, Greenhall R, Hyman N. The PDQ-8: development and validation of a short-form Parkinson's disease questionnaire. Psychol Health 1997; 12: 805-814

  Quality of Life: Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL)

Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL)
de Boer AG, Wijker W, Speelman JD, de Haes JC. Quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease: development of a questionnaire. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996; 61: 70-74

  Quality of Life: Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Psychosocial

Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Psychosocial
Marinus J,Visser M,Martinez-Martin P,van Hilten JJ,Stiggelbout AM. A short psychosocial questionnaire for patients with Parkinson's disease: the SCOPA-PS. J Clin Epidemiol 2003; 56: 61-67

  Quality of Life: Parkinson's Impact Scale (PIMS)

Parkinson's Impact Scale (PIMS)
Calne S, Schulzer M, Mak E, et al. Validating a quality of life Rating Scale for Idiopathic Parkinsonism: Parkinson's Impact Scale (PIMS). Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 1996; 2: 55-61

  Quality of Life: Nottingham Health Profile

Nottingham Health Profile
Hunt SM, McEwen J, McKenna SP. Measuring health status: a new tool for clinicians and epidemiologists. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1985; 35: 185-188

  Quality of Life: Sickness Impact Profile (SIP)

Sickness Impact Profile (SIP)
Bergner B, Bobbitt R, Carter W, Gilson B. The sickness impact profile: development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care. 1981; 19: 787-805

  Quality of Life: Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQUALIF)

Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQUALIF)
Welsh M, McDermott MP, Holloway RG, et al. Devlopment and testing of the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQUALIF). Mov Disord. 2003;18:637-645

  Sleep: Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS)

Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS)
Chaudhuri KR, Pal S, DiMarco A, et al. The Parkinson's disease sleep scale: a new instrument for assessing sleep and nocturnal disability in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73: 629-635.

  Sleep: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (PSQI)

Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
Buysse,D.J., Reynolds,C.F., Monk,T.H., Berman,S.R., & Kupfer,D.J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): A new instrument for psychiatric research and practice. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213

  Sleep: SCOPA Sleep Scale (SCOPA)

SCOPA Sleep Scale (SCOPA)
Marinus J, Visser M, van Hilten JJ, Lammers GJ, Stiggelbout AM. Assessment of sleep and sleepiness in Parkinson's disease. SLEEP 2003;26:1049-1054

  Voice: Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ)

Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ)
Webb AL, Carding PN, Deary IJ, MacKenzie K, Steen IN, Wilson JA. Optimising outcome assessment of voice interventions. I: Reliability and validity of three self-reported scales. J Laryngol Otol2007;121:763–767

  Voice Handicap Index

Voice Handicap Index
Jacobson BH, Johnson A, Grywalski C, et al. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI): development and validation. Am J Speech Lang Pathol1997;6:66–70

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